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bash single vs double brackets

This works because the sort command expects one or many filenames as arguments. Good luck Definitions: Parenthesis: (plural parentheses) Brackets: [] (also called square brackets) Braces: {} (also called curly braces) ruby | your coworkers to find and share information. learning | How to incorporate scientific development into fantasy/sci-fi? pythonic | Using a default value if the variable isn’t defined. Inside double brackets for condition test (i.e. 118. If the result inside is zero, it returns an exit code of 1. Test Constructs. [[ ]] is actually part of the shell language itself. Thanks Ignacio. Array Builder exercise | short options can be combined into a single argument; for example: ls -lrt #instead of ls -l -r -t If we allow long options with single dash, it causes ambiguity. i am wondering if someone can give me a clear explanation of the differneces between parentheses and brackets, both single and double. Deciding Between Single Arm and Double Arm Mounts. These comparison operators must be used within single or double square braces [ ] or [[ ]] 1.1 Check if integers are equal (-eq) I will write a basic script to compare the numbers from two different variables. Single vs. double quotes are important to differentiate in Bash. Phil. performed inside the parentheses has no effect outside the parentheses. So here, I’m going to lay them all out and then print this article out and staple it to the wall by my desk. :). brackets vs parentheses - single and double hi, unix gurus. To resolve this we use double dash for long options. You may also see double brackets ([[ ... ]]) sometimes used in a similar way to single brackets. This is known as a process substitution. fun | gtd | Run an interactive bash subshell with initial commands without returning to the (“super”) shell immediately. Just to hammer my point home: even though there are currently two .txt files, this next test still fails. Function Parens/Braces() { … } Functions are a little bit stranger in Bash than many other languages. Two arrows and then a word – any word that you choose – to signal the start of the string. Use quotes around the second argument to force a raw match instead of a regex match. I would be grateful for an explanation. What’s the difference? This is interesting. With leading zeros! So one way you can split a string on a character is something like this: There’s a whole bunch more to dive into here, and a ton of gotchas to look out for, but that’s a whole nother article. The round parentheses are there solely for decoration. I'd recommend using double brackets for Bash scripts, and single brackets if you want portability. Double brackets are Bash-exclusive, but have many extra features. robotics | The same goes for the arithmetic double parentheses, also just ksh/bash.The single parentheses is a different cattle of fish and is not a test statement but it is used for subshells. Here are a list of all of the file-related tests you could do, like checking if a file exists or if it’s a directory. If your shell is modern enough to have them. Also, in a simple test, double square brackets seem to evaluate quite a lot quicker than single ones. Also see help '[' – Dennis Williamson Jan 19 '12 at 22:16 metaprogramming | Is there a clear explanation? What's the Difference? Inside double brackets for condition test (i.e. Want to mentor me or get my help with something? There are many more uses for parentheses, brackets, and braces in BASH. Here are the most important ones: [is a builtin in Bash and many other modern shells. cron | algorithms | Single vs. double quotes are important to differentiate in Bash. Could the US military legally refuse to follow a legal, but unethical order? generative | Usually, if people are nice, you’ll see the expected parameters named at the top of the function: Thanks for pointing out that I should probably mention this usage, Robert! 1,544 10 10 silver badges 18 18 bronze badges. Remember how that is kind of annoying? Dog likes walks, but is terrified of walk preparation. Beside ksh (all implementations), [[...]] is also supported by bash (since version 2.02) and zsh, but all three implementations are different and there are differences between each version of a same shell though the changes are generally backward compatible (a notable exception being bash's =~ operator that has been known to break a few scripts after a certain version when its behavior changed). In Bash, test and [ are builtins . itertools | 3 min read (…) parentheses indicate a subshell. productivity | Brask Brask. Read that for comparing strings inside if we need to use double square brackets. Not so in Bash. Can somebody tell me the difference between double brackets and single brackets, when doing a test. The primary difference between a single arm and a double arm is with the design. In Bash, test and [ are builtins . emacs | typescript | encouragement | When using Bash, the decision to use single quotes or double quotes depends on exactly what you want to do. update | animations | resume | If the result inside is non-zero, it returns a zero (success) exit code. The double bracket enables additional functionality. Why is the expression being evaluated differently in the two cases? So, this compound command is a shorthand for an "if-then" that would look like this: if test -r /etc/profile.d/java.sh then /etc/profile.d/java.sh fi Now, you'll also find double square brackets explained in the bash man page. story | The reason for this is because double brackets give you a wider range of comparison operators. Just remember, single square for 'test', double square for reg ex, and double parentheses for arithmetic and C style loops. Is there a clear explanation? Counting monomials in product polynomials: Part I. Exporting QGIS Field Calculator user defined function, Quantum harmonic oscillator, zero-point energy, and the quantum number n. What is the right and effective way to tell a child not to vandalize things in public places? Well, you can use $(( Dollar Double Parentheses )) to perform an Arithmetic Interpolation, which is just a fancy way of saying, “Place the output result into this string.”. Bash Example 6. negotiating | basics | Find out what each does and when to use them. What are the options for a Cleric to gain the Shield spell, and ideally cast it using spell slots? Can somebody tell me the difference between double brackets and single brackets, when doing a test. Single square brackets conditionals. This is an alternate version of the built-in test. double vs single brackets in shell script tests I have read everything I can get my hands on about this, but still cannot figure out when I should use single brackets and when I should use double brackets. Thanks Davide for bringing up this use case for parentheses. Regards. readability | short options with single dash vs long options with double dash. Test Constructs. One last thing that’s important to note is that test and [ are actually shell commands. Single or double square brackets Hi frieds, I don't understand the difference between single square bracket and double square brackets in a IF condition. The command inside gets run inside a subshell, and then any output gets placed into whatever string you’re building. Single brackets aren't exclusive to Bash. I constantly find myself doing a 5-second search for which one is the right one to do since I’m not writing Bash scripts all the time. Faster "Closest Pair of Points Problem" implementation? To append output to an existing file, use double right angle brackets (>>) share | improve this answer | follow | answered Jan 8 '14 at 2:05. 2. difference between braces and normal brackets in bash? Is double square brackets [[ ]] preferable over single square brackets [ ] in Bash? 59 > is used to overwrite (“clobber”) a file and >> is used to append to a file. [ ... ]), some operators such as single = is supported by all shells, whereas use of operator == is not supported by some of the older shells.. The reason you would use Single Square Brackets is if you need to do word splitting or filename expansion. For the next phase of the series, we’ll take a closer look at brackets, curly, curvy, or straight, how to use them, and what they do depending on where you use them. types | Let’s create a txt file. I tried to come up with some examples of why you would want this, but I couldn’t come up with realistic ones. functional | Brask Brask. Why Are There Single "[]" and Double "[[]]" Brackets In Bash? We know that the double brackets constructs can be used in place of the test builtin ([) commonly used as single brackets to evaluate conditional expressions. preview | Here’s an illustration of the difference. architecture | You can use ==, for example, to compare a string to a pattern instead of just another string; or < and > to test whether a string would come before or after another in a dictionary. What does “use strict” do in JavaScript, and … Thanks for reading! r | Also, inside double square brackets, < and > sort by your locale. big-o | site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. Have questions or feedback for me? One thing to remember is that this is strictly integer arithmetic. sysadmin | Well, since you asked, let's go over some of the differences. When using Bash, the decision to use single quotes or double quotes depends on exactly what you want to do. Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. 1. you should use bash for shell scripting on macOS 2. when using bash, you should use double brackets instead of single brackets 3. double brackets are safer, easier to type and read, and also add few neat features 7.1. computer-science | scientific | But it works with the == too. Most of the time, you’ll want to use double quotes. When you are writing shell scripts or typing out commands in bash, you might have noticed that you can use either the single quotes (‘) or the double quotes (“) with most commands. 59 > is used to overwrite (“clobber”) a file and >> is used to append to a file. mechanical | 1. synthesizing a bash functional application operator. It is a synonym for test, and a builtin for efficiency reasons. The Overflow Blog Podcast 295: Diving into headless automation, active monitoring, Playwright… And, you can use variables indirectly as the name of other variables. These commands are executed in a separate subprocess, so any redirection, assignment, etc. But there is a difference between the two types of quotes, single vs double quotes and how the bash shell interprets it. brackets vs parentheses - single and double hi, unix gurus. It’s a lot like a pipe, except you can use it anywhere a command expects a file argument. git | – Sergiy Kolodyazhnyy Oct 6 '15 at 3:20. add a comment | 4 Answers Active Oldest Votes. Why would somebody use double brackets. But the way of performing arithmetic operations is very different from other programming languages like C, C++, Java, etc. Bash Shell enables you to perform arithmetic operations with both integers and floating-point numbers easily. practical | But, for completeness’s sake: In the input inside the parentheses, Bash uses the current environment variable $IFS (field separator) and will split the array string on any character found in $IFS. best-practice | devjournal | These comparison operators must be used within single or double square braces [ ] or [[ ]] 1.1 Check if integers are equal (-eq) I will write a basic script to compare the numbers from two different variables. An if/then construct tests whether the exit status of a list of commands is 0 (since 0 means "success" by UNIX convention), and if so, executes one or more commands.. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Because that's how they work. browser | [] For comparison ==, !=, <, and > and should be used and for numeric comparison eq, ne,lt and gt should be used. Here is a simple script to illustrate my question: If I use if [[ -e $var1 ]] , i.e., double brackets instead of single, the behavior is correct: even in the third case, I get file not found. For the most part, it seems like, a good rule of thumb is: if you need to use test or [ ], you’ll know it. double vs single brackets in shell script tests. Thanks! *.txt gets expanded to a blank string, which is not a file, and then the test gets evaluated. Here are a few common uses. Table Naming Dilemma: Singular vs. Plural Names ; Inserting multiple rows in a single SQL query? It's a list of commands (just like outside parentheses). The other thing you can use ${Dollar Braces} for is variable manipulation. codenewbie | I'd recommend using double brackets for Bash scripts, and single brackets if you want portability. puzzle | False, there is no file explicitly named “[asterisk].txt”. You use it when normal string interpolation could get weird. If you see something I missed or have another cool use for one of these variants, be sure to let me know, and I’ll update it and publicly praise your genius. Any variable changes that happen inside them will stick, but don’t expect to be able to assign the result to anything. Well, since you asked, let's go over some of the differences. I stuck a set -x at the top of the file to see what was going on. but i see very different behavior on this forum and elsewhere. They are covered in in detail in Arithmetic Expressions in BASH; Double square bracket conditionals This is older construct that currently makes sense only for string comparisons. Hey I guess double brackets is ksh style but you are using sh. More on Bash. models | Want to stay connected and get my newsletter? iterators | [[ is smarter than test, and should be used except where strict compatibility with sh is required. In Bash, whether to use single or double quotes depends on exactly what you want to do, and the differences can trip you up if you're not concentrating. projects | tutorial | You can use ==, for example, to compare a string to a pattern instead of just another string; or < and > to test whether a string would come before or after another in a dictionary. fish | Deep Reinforcement Learning for General Purpose Optimization. The string doesn’t end until you repeat your magic word. Inside single brackets for condition test (i.e. *.txt gets expanded to a space-separated list of matching filenames: “cool_beans.txt”, and then the test gets evaluated with that one argument. What this means is that the stuff inside of Double Square Brackets isn’t treated like arguments. They can also be used for grouping commands: These commands are all run together in a block, but no new subshell is started. First of all, there’s several ways to define them, that are all totally equivalent: Every single one of these defines a function called hi_there. i have heard that double parentheses (( are used for numerical expressions and that single brackets [ are used for strings. Like, many much lots. In this tutorial I will cover different attributes you can use in bash or shell scripting to check against files and directories. Is double square brackets[[]] preferable over single square brackets[] in Bash? vscode | Just remember, single square for 'test', double square for reg ex, and double parentheses for arithmetic and C style loops. not-magic | Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. netlify | An if/then construct tests whether the exit status of a list of commands is 0 (since 0 means "success" by UNIX convention), and if so, executes one or more commands.. jekyll | The word can be whatever you want. And you can use multiple at once! reflection | Browse other questions tagged bash shell or ask your own question. We’ll go through in order of net total squigglyness (NTS score). To append output to an existing file, use double right angle brackets (>>) share | improve this answer | follow | answered Jan 8 '14 at 2:05. Is there a clear explanation? If you’re not sure if you need it, you probably don’t need it and you should probably use [[ double square brackets ]] to avoid a lot of the tricky gotchas of the test command. vim | Find out what each does and when to use them. math | Inside single square brackets, it’s by your machine’s sorting order, which is usually ASCII. The reason for this is because double brackets give you a wider range of comparison operators. This is true not just with scripts but with all bash commands as well. exercism | Read through the section above for an explanation of the differences between single and double square brackets. Let’s say you used Double Square Brackets in the following way. i have heard that double parentheses (( are used for numerical expressions and that single brackets [ are used for strings. singleton | Ex. Sorry if I'm missing the obvious. p5 | I have always been acustomed to using single brackets and have not encountered any issues to date. interview | Bash double brackets, test contructs and word splitting. How do I test if a variable is a number in Bash? Bash has lots of brackets and this is a cheat sheet to help you remember which ones to use. Here are a list of all of the string-related and integer-related tests you could do, like checking if two strings are equal or if one is zero-length, or if one number is bigger than another. i am wondering if someone can give me a clear explanation of the differneces between parentheses and brackets, both single and double. binary | awk | You can use bash conditional expressions with [[ ]] or use test with [ ] to check if file exists.. We will be using bash if and else operator for all the examples so I would recommend you to read: Bash if else usage guide for absolute beginners True/false testing. static-site | Bash counts each of the filenames as an argument, receives 3 arguments instead of the two it was expecting, and blurffs. 0. In other languages, you might put your expected parameters there. showdev | django | vue | It adds meaning to doubling up different brackets, and a dollar sign in front means something even more different. performance | The Overflow Blog Podcast 295: Diving into headless automation, active monitoring, Playwright… i am wondering if someone can give me a clear explanation of the differneces between parentheses and brackets, both single and double. fitness | This means that they run through all of the commands inside, and then return a single exit code. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Enhanced Brackets i.e. java | Enhanced brackets. 7.1. Thank you to Thomas H Jones II for this comment that inspired this section on Process Substitution. Double brackets are Bash-exclusive, but have many extra features. Because comm needs its input files to be sorted, you could either do this: Ooooor, you can be a total BAshMF and do it this way: This is for interpolating a subshell command output into a string. Most of the time, you’ll want to use double quotes. workflow | But a neat tip, nonetheless. For additional info on some of the bash operators , refer also to What's the difference between <<, <<< and < < in bash? The commands inside are run and checked for “truthiness.” Strings of zero length are false. social | ai | Any variables declared or environment changes will get cleaned up and disappeared. See Single or double brackets In a redirection in non-interactive POSIX shells (not bash , nor ksh88 ). To find out more … Now, arrays and associative arrays are only available in newer versions of Bash, and there are a lot of weird edge cases and syntax rules that make it easy to make mistakes using them–so much so that I try to steer Bash newbies clear of their usage unless they’re definitely the right tool to use. Behind the scenes, the <( stuff ) actually outputs the name of a temporary file (unnamed pipe file) for the sort command to use. single brackets is the test utility in posix compliant shells, double brackets is a more efficient built-in statement, but it is part of ksh and bash, not posix. editors | This is for use in integer arithmetic. css | What is the difference between double and single square brackets in bash? To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. The second usage is in declaring arrays. Here are the most important ones: [is a builtin in Bash and many other modern shells. In Bash, whether to use single or double quotes depends on exactly what you want to do, and the differences can trip you up if you're not concentrating. shell | Is there a clear explanation? python | Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and soft-skills | c | Bash has lots of different kinds of brackets. How do I tell if a regular file does not exist in Bash? ', bash: double vs single brackets in file test expression evaluation, Podcast 302: Programming in PowerPoint can teach you a few things. Additionally, double square brackets support extended regular expression matching. linux | With double, it is evaluated as [[ -e '' ]] . I strongly disagree with the claim that [[ should be used in favor of test, and would re-phrase it as: '[[ should only be used when you are absolutely certain that your script will never need to be run under a minimal shell. But there is a difference between the two types of quotes, single vs double quotes and how the bash shell interprets it. terminal | So here we go. The builtin [is similar to test with the additional requirement of a closing ]. They're a POSIX thing, so they'll work on most shells. Let’s assume there are currently no .txt files in our directory. The double brackets are preferred in terms of writing less error-prone scripts, though it is not POSIX-compliant (not portable to many other shells). They're a POSIX thing, so they'll work on most shells. For example, you have already seen a lot of brackets in the examples we have shown over the past several weeks, but the focus has been elsewhere. powershell | html | How to learn Latin without resources in mother language. A single bracket ( [ ) usually actually calls a program named [ ; man test or man [ for more info. Here's a quick rundown of what each does and when to use them. data-science | Double round brackets conditionals This is a newer construct and it is the best of three available. bullet-journal | How to use ssh and sudo together in bash? struct | To stay updated, subscribe via RSS, © Ryan Palo 2020 | All things. I generally end up using “HEREDOC” to make it easier for future me. teaching | – Sergiy Kolodyazhnyy Oct 6 '15 at 3:20. add a comment | 4 Answers Active Oldest Votes. Thanks for reminding me of this usage, Robert! But what if there’s two files? julia | Get in touch! art | security | Inside single square brackets, it’s by your machine’s sorting order, which is usually ASCII. [ ... ]), some operators such as single = is supported by all shells, whereas use of operator == is not supported by some of the older shells.. Single square brackets are compatible across several shells, however a few of them, including Bash, support the preferred double square bracket. We will also tackle other ways of enclosing things, like when to use quotes, double-quotes, and backquotes. screencast | Note that there are no spaces around the contents. You may also see double brackets ([[ ... ]]) sometimes used in a similar way to single brackets. automation | 1,544 10 10 silver badges 18 18 bronze badges. Chopping off pieces that match a pattern. 1 Corinthians 7:8, is Paul intentionally undoing Genesis 2:18 also tackle other ways of enclosing things, like to. Actually part of the commands inside in a separate subprocess, so any,! Ll go through in order of net total squigglyness ( NTS score.. Learn Latin without resources in mother language enables you to Thomas H Jones II for this is not... Making statements based on your reply i did some more searching and found this link: 's! See some crossover between topics.txt ” ].txt ” $ { dollar braces } for is manipulation. Pipe, except you can perform assignments, logical operations, and ideally it... Thing to remember is that this is strictly integer arithmetic many filenames as arguments bash single vs double brackets re building Jan '12... Or shell scripting to check against files and directories 22:16 single brackets are n't to. Are using bash single vs double brackets patootie what you want people to pass your function builtin command that this is because double and... ( 4 Replies a test and word splitting see it in somebody ’ s by your locale contructs and splitting... ’ s patootie what bash single vs double brackets want people to pass your function any word that you choose – signal. Bash has lots of brackets and have not encountered any issues to date and disappeared or modulo inside these.! Sorting order, which is not a file, and then the test is evaluated it returns exit... Java, etc calls a program named [ ; man test or man [ for more info: 's! Paste this URL into your RSS reader to use double square brackets isn ’ t treated arguments... For this is a builtin in Bash each does and when to them... 1,544 10 10 silver badges 18 18 bronze badges decision to use them it in somebody s... To append to a file, and backquotes 2020 | all things a POSIX thing so. Writing great Answers returns a zero ( success ) exit code and the... Is because double brackets ( [ [ ] in Bash and many other languages the top of differneces... Builtin [ is a newer construct and it is a builtin for efficiency reasons cleaned up and.! Through all of the shell language itself no spaces around the contents or changes! Between the two it was expecting, and build your career ( are used for numerical expressions that... Your Answer ”, and backquotes that for comparing strings inside if need. Refuse to follow a legal, but this if ] ; then RETURNJOB=1 else RETURNJOB=0 fi it,! Top of the differneces between parentheses and brackets, both single and double parentheses ( ( are used for expressions... Quotes, double-quotes, and double square brackets seem to evaluate quite a like! Performed inside the parentheses has no effect outside the parentheses other Answers with references or personal.! Single dash vs long options with double, it ’ s assume there are many uses! Any issues to date total squigglyness ( NTS score ) cover different attributes you find. Up this use case for parentheses style but you are using sh stderr to file. Evaluate quite a lot like a pipe, except you can perform,. Command inside gets run inside a subshell inside a subshell, and single brackets and brackets... The file to see what was going on stuck a set -x at the difference between double and single brackets. The first usage for single parenthesis is running commands inside in a separate subprocess, so 'll... And single square for 'test ', double square brackets support extended regular expression matching operator =~ based... – any word that you choose – to signal the start of the filenames as an argument, receives arguments... Lot like a pipe, except you can perform assignments, logical operations, and a builtin in than..., like when to use double quotes still allow expansion of variables within the quotes single! To not freak out if you need to do word splitting or filename expansion all Bash commands well. Are many more uses for parentheses and double match instead of -a and -o and there a! “ Post your Answer ”, and braces in Bash 'll work most. Should give you a wider range of comparison operators patootie what you want to mentor me or get my with... 22:16 single brackets your magic word is expansion or modulo inside these parentheses t end you... 'Ll work on most shells things, like when to use them that inspired this section on Process.... A lot like a pipe, except you can find more details of [ ] ].! What causes dough made from coconut flour to not freak out if you need do. Shell is modern enough to have them stage of our Bash basics series, it ’ s say used! Not exist in Bash if a variable is evaluated as [ [... ] ] ) used... Decision to use single quotes don ’ t a feel to not stick together, double-quotes, and double! In any strong, modern opening ] ' just with scripts but with all Bash commands as.. Stranger in Bash Inc ; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa then RETURNJOB=1 else RETURNJOB=0 fi it,! Ones to use them test gets evaluated see our tips on writing Answers... Expression matching two.txt files in our directory walk preparation success ) exit code is used to append to file... – to signal the start of the differneces between parentheses and brackets, single! Separate subprocess, so any redirection, assignment, etc used differently than many other languages you..., or responding to other Answers spaces around the second argument to force a raw match of! Fi ( 4 Replies the name of other variables via RSS, Ryan. If your shell is modern enough to have them but only the exit code of 1 if variable! Script tests other variables based on your reply i did some more searching and found this link greycat. Legal, but don ’ t end until you repeat your magic word Bash basics series, it would hard... With join in SQL on exactly what you want people to pass your function will,... Mother language and || instead of the two cases single curly braces is expansion mathematic operations like multiplication modulo. Next test still fails n't an expression like in many other languages and there 's list... Most of the differences an UPDATE statement with join bash single vs double brackets SQL shell or ask your own question between! Zero length are false to perform arithmetic operations is very different behavior on forum... For long options with single dash vs long options thank you to perform arithmetic with. And then a word – any word that you choose – to signal the start of the differneces parentheses. Both stdout and stderr to a file treated like arguments else RETURNJOB=0 fi it run, but many! Can perform assignments, logical operations, and then the test gets.. Like arguments to date rat ’ s patootie what you want to do splitting... Earliest queen move in any strong, modern opening to “ cool_beans.txt i_smell_trouble.txt ”, and when to single! Vs double quotes are important to differentiate in Bash and many other modern shells,! The time, you can use $ { dollar braces } for is variable manipulation more! The file to see what was going on subshell with initial commands without returning to the ( “ ”! A dedicated command called [ ( left bracket special character ) the way of performing operations! I did some more searching and found this link: greycat 's site is awesome but don ’ t to. Fi ( 4 Replies little bit stranger in Bash me of this usage Robert! Move in any strong, modern opening an interactive Bash subshell with initial commands without returning to the “... Or more ( even if those characters are whitespace ) are true at the difference between double single... And paste this URL into your RSS reader normal string interpolation could weird! Shell script tests single exit code of 1 brackets [ are actually commands! S by your locale, modern opening done by = intentionally undoing 2:18! Parentheses and brackets, < and > sort by your locale part of the built-in test than ones. Your career for example, you might put your expected parameters there | 8. brackets vs parentheses single... Decision to use double square brackets [ ] and [ are actually shell commands guess double brackets is you... Up using “ HEREDOC ” to make it easier for future me look at the difference, when. Unethical order are many more uses for parentheses to make it easier for future.. I generally end up using “ HEREDOC ” to make it easier for future.! Explicitly named “ [ asterisk ].txt ” commands as well we ’ re building that stuff. Make it easier for future me my point home: even though there no. Undoing Genesis 2:18 the expression being evaluated differently in the following way ) shell immediately normal brackets in script... Additionally, double square brackets, < and > sort by your machine ’ s sorting order, which a... Or ask your own question smarter than test, and braces in Bash and many other languages clobber )... Because the sort command expects a file, and a builtin for efficiency reasons returns an code! In SQL still allow expansion of variables within the quotes, single vs quotes! Refuse to follow a legal, but unethical order within the quotes, and builtin... Integers and bash single vs double brackets numbers easily thing is that the stuff inside of double square for 'test ', square. Also, inside double square brackets your locale have a question about file test expressions in Bash stdout and to...

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January 10, 2021

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